Ken Akamatsu, creator of the Japanese manga series Love Hina and Mahou Sensei Negima!, expressed concern that the agreement could decimate the Djinshi(self-published) works that predated Japan. Akamatsu argued that the TPP would “destroy D-Jinshi. And it would also reduce the power of the entire manga industry. [114] In addition, the agreement provides for expedited customs procedures for express shipments and prohibits the application of tariffs on electronic shipments. In addition, it requires additional data protection, security and consumer protection measures for online transactions and encourages the publication of customs forms online. These provisions should be particularly useful for small businesses. [88] The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a free trade agreement for trade and investment liberalization between 12 Pacific countries: New Zealand, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam. In December 2011, certain patent and copyright enforcement provisions purportedly contained in the US proposal on the agreement were criticized as overly restrictive, beyond the provisions of the Korea-US trade agreement and the anti-counterfeiting trade agreement (ACAC). [111] [112] The original TPP contained measures to reduce non-tariff and tariff barriers[10] and to create an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (ISDR). [11] [12] THE U.S. International Trade Commission,[13] the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the World Bank and the Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada found that the final agreement would lead to positive economic outcomes for all signatories if ratified, while an analysis with an alternative methodology by two Tufts University economists found that the agreement would have a negative impact on signatories. [Note 1] Many observers have argued that the trade agreement would have served a geopolitical purpose, namely to reduce the dependence of signatories on Chinese trade and to bring the signatories closer to the United States. [23] [24] [25] [26] According to the Office of the United States Trade Representative, the TPP contains “the most robust environmental commitments in history.” [90] The USTR notes that the TPP requires signatories to comply with its obligations under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in order to protect and preserve iconic species. [90] According to the USTR, the TPP is the first trade agreement banning fishing-harmful subsidies such as those that contribute to overfishing.

[90] The USTR states that TPP signatories are required to “fight illegal fishing,” “promote sustainable fisheries management practices,” “protect wetlands and important natural areas,” “fight illegal wildlife trade, illegal logging and illegal fishing” and “protect the marine environment from pollution from ships , including meeting its obligations under MARPOL (an international agreement for the prevention of marine pollution).” [90] In June 2015, U.S. Senator Rand Paul, Republican from Kentucky, rejected the law to expedite the ratification of the TPP by Congress on the basis of the secrecy of the trade agreement. [209] The TPP explicitly excludes the tobacco industry from the ISDS procedure. [134] The carve-out was a response to concerns about ISDS cases against anti-smoking laws, including Philip Morris against Uruguay. [135] The ISDS tobacco exemption is a first for an international trade agreement. [134] A September 2016 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP) predicts that “if countries take action to protect the climate, conflicts between trade rules and climate targets will escalate.” [102]:1 The report also indicates that trade agreements such as the TPP establish broad-based rules for the economy and government policy, which expands trade, often in the extractive sectors, and protects businesses and financial enterprises from future climate stabilization measures. [102] The