For the first time, the agreement is specifically aimed at agricultural biotechnology to support 21st century innovations in agriculture. The text covers all biotechnology, including new technologies such as gene processing, while the trans-Pacific Partnership text covered only traditional rDNA technology. In particular, the United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on provisions to improve information exchange and cooperation on trade-related issues in agricultural biotechnology. Economists David Autor, David Dorn and Gordon Hanson weigh the impact of trade with China and Mexico on the U.S. labour market in this 2016 paper [PDF] for the National Bureau of Economic Research. The result of a rare demonstration of cooperation between parties and cross-borders in the Trump era of global trade conflicts, the agreement was colored the same day he became the fourth U.S. president in history to make a formal impeachment proceeding. National procedures for ratifying the agreement in the United States are governed by the legislation of the Trade Promotion Authority, which is also known as the fast-track authority. The negotiations focused “primarily on car exports, tariffs on steel and aluminum, as well as the milk, egg and poultry markets.” A provision “prevents any party from enacting laws that restrict the cross-border flow of data.” [11] Compared to NAFTA, the USMCA increases environmental and labour standards and encourages domestic production of cars and trucks. [12] The agreement also provides up-to-date intellectual property protection, gives the U.S. more access to the Canadian milk market, imposes a quota for Canadian and Mexican auto production, and increases the customs limit for Canadians who purchase U.S. products online from $20 to $150.

[13] The full list of differences between USMCA and ALEFTA is listed on the Website of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). [14] Such trade benefits often come under interest, because while costs are heavily concentrated in certain sectors such as the automotive industry, the benefits of an agreement such as NAFTA are widely distributed in society. NAFTA proponents estimate that approximately $14 million